There are many ridiculous rumors in nutrition.
"Calories rumors" are one of the most widespread and most damaging rumors.
That is the opinion for that calories is the most important part of the diet, and the supply of those calories is not important.
They say, "The problem with calories is that calories are calories." It doesn't matter whether you eat 100 calories of candy or broccoli, they will have the same effect on your weight.
It is true that all "calories" have the same amount of energy. A calorie in the diet contains 4184 Jun energy. In that respect, calories ARE calories.
But when talking about your body, everything is back not easy .
The human body is a very complex biochemical system with meticulous processes that regulate energy balance.
Different foods go through different biochemical pathways, some of which are ineffective and cause energy loss (calories) due to heat .
Even more important is the fact that different foods and macronutrients have a big impact on hormones and the brain center controls hunger and eating behavior.
The types of food we eat can have an impact very big to biological processes that control when we eat, eat and eat.
Here are six proven examples of why calories are NOT calories.
1. Fructose and Glucose
The two main sugars in the diet are glucose and fructose.
They seem almost identical, have the same chemical formula and have the same mass.
But with the body, these two types are completely different .
Can be metabolized by all body tissues, but fructose can only be metabolized by the liver with little or more amount .
Here are some examples of why glucose calories are not the same :
Ghrelin is "hungry hormone." It rises when we are hungry and lowered after eating. One study showed that fructose made ghrelin levels higher (more hungry) glucose .
Fructose does not stimulate satisfied centers in the brain in the same way as glucose, do reduce feeling of fullness .
High fructose consumption may cause insulin resistance , increased abdominal fat, increased triglycerides, small blood sugar and LDL particles compared to the equivalent calories from glucose.
The same amount of calories greatly affects hunger, hormones and metabolic health. Because a calorie is not necessarily a calorie.
Remember that this only applies to fructose words Additional sugar , not fructose from fruit. Fruits There is also fiber, water and significant chewing resistance, mitigating the negative effects of fructose.
Summary: Although fructose and glucose have the same chemical formula, fructose has more negative effects on hormones, appetite and metabolic health.
2. Heat impact of food
Different foods go through different metabolic pathways.
Some roads are more effective than others.
The more "efficient" the metabolic pathway is, the more energy from food is used for operation and the less energy is consumed by heat.
Metabolic pathways for proteins are less effective than metabolic pathways for carb and fat.
Protein contains 4 calories per gram, but a large amount of protein calories is lost because of heat when it is metabolized by the body.
A measure of the amount of different foods that increase energy consumption, due to the energy needed to digest, absorb, and metabolize nutrients.
This is the thermal effect of various macronutrients :
- Fat: 2-3%.
- Carb: 6-8%.
- The protein: 25-30%.
The sources vary according to the exact number, but obviously the protein require a lot of energy to metabolize rather than fat and carb .
If we are accompanied by a heat effect of 25% for protein and 2% for fat, this means that the 100 calories of the final protein will be 75 calories, while the last 100 calories of fat is 98 calories.
Studies show that diets are high in proteins that boost metabolism every day, compared to a low-protein diet .
In simple words, high protein diets have "metabolic advantages."
There is also a study comparing two sandwich meals with the same amount of calories and macronutrients.
However, a sandwich made with whole grains and cheddar cheese, while the other is made with refined grains and processed cheese .
People who eat whole-grain sandwich have burned energy twice as much due to many calories digested during meals.
Summary: Calories from protein are less fat than calories from carb and fat because protein loses more energy to metabolize. Whole foods also need more energy to digest than processed foods.
3. Protein kills appetite and makes you eat less calories
The story of protein does not end at increased metabolism.
It also significantly reduces appetite, making you automatic eat less calories.
Studies show that protein is by far the most saturated macronutrients .
If people increase protein consumption, they begin to lose weight without counting calories or controlling diets. Automatic fat-losing proteins .
In one study, those who increased their protein intake to 30% of calories automatically started eating 441 calories a day and lost 4.9 kg in 12 weeks .
If you don't want to "diet" but simply balance your body's fat, adding more protein to your diet can be the simplest (and most delicious) way to lose weight "by yourself." dynamic. ”
Obviously when it comes to metabolism and diet, a protein calories is NOT the same as a calorie carb or a fat calories.
Summary: Increasing protein levels can reduce appetite and lose weight automatically without calorie counting or diet control.
4. Satisfaction index
Different foods have different effects on feeling
Some foods are also easier to overeat than others.
For example, it can be quite easy to eat 500 calories (or more) of ice cream, while you must be reluctant to eat 500 calories of eggs or broccoli.
This is a good example of how you choose food that can have a huge impact on the total calories you consume.
There are many factors that determine the satisfaction level of different foods, calculated by a scale called satiety index (satiety index) .
Satisfaction index is a measure of food's ability to reduce hunger, increase satiety and reduce energy consumption in a few hours.
If you eat low quality foods according to your satisfaction index, you will be hungry and eventually eat more. If you choose foods with a high satisfaction index, you will eat less and weight loss.
Some with high satisfaction index are boiled potatoes, beef, eggs, beans and fruits, while foods with low satisfaction index include round cakes and pastries.
Obviously, whether you choose to satiate or not will have a big difference in energy balance in the long run. Because a calorie from boiled potatoes is not like a calorie from a round cake.
Summary: Different foods have different effects on the feeling of satisfaction and the amount of calories we consume at the next meal. This is measured by a scale called a satisfaction index.
5. Low-carb diet automatically limits calories
Since 2002, more than 20 randomized controlled trials have compared low-carb and low-fat diets.
Studies show that a low-carb diet causes more weight loss, usually 2-3 times.
One of the main reasons for this is that a low-carb diet drastically reduces appetite. People start eating less calories without trying .
But even if the calories were the same between groups, the low-carb group often lost more weight, although this was not always statistically significant .
The biggest reason for this is probably a low-carb diet also causes significant dehydration. Excessive swelling tends to disappear in the first or second week .
Another reason is that a low-carb diet tends to contain more protein than low-fat diets. Protein uses energy to metabolize and the body consumes energy to convert protein into glucose .
Summary: Low-carb diets often cause more weight loss than low-fat diets, even when calories are the same between groups.
6. Blood sugar index
There is a lot of controversy about nutrition and experts disagree on many issues.
But one of the few things that most people agree on is refined carb not good.
This includes sugar additives such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, as well as refined cereal products such as white bread.
Refined carbohydrates tend to be low in fiber, and are rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in a sudden increase in blood sugar levels. They have High (GI), used to measure food levels increases blood sugar quickly.
When we eat food that causes blood sugar to rise rapidly, it tends to destroy blood sugar a few hours later, also called "blood sugar gliders." When blood sugar is suddenly low, we Again craving snacks that contain lots of carb.
In For people who drink identical milkshakes except for different high or low carb levels, high GI milkshakes can increase hunger and appetite more than low GI milkshakes .
Another study showed that adolescent boys ate more than 81% of calories in a high-GI diet compared to low GI meals .
So the speed at which calorie carb enters the body can have a significant impact on the potential for overeating and weight gain.
If you are in a high-carb diet, important thing is to choose unprocessed carb materials that contain fiber. Fiber can reduce the rate of glucose entering your system .
Studies show that people who eat foods with the highest glycemic index are at greatest risk of obesity and diabetes. Because not all carb calories are created the same .
Summary: Studies show that refined carbohydrates make blood sugar rise rapidly and to a greater extent, leading to appetite and increased food intake.
Different calorie sources can have very different effects on hunger, hormones, energy consumption and brain regions that control the amount of food consumed.
Although calories are important, calculating them or even being aware of them is not necessary to lose weight.
In many cases, simple changes in food selection may yield the same (or better) results than calorie restriction.