There are many nutrients that are essential for health.
They are present in most real and balanced food diets.
However, the typical modern diet lacks some very important nutrients.
This article lists 7 missing nutrients that are often lacking in unexpected.
1. Iron deficiency
Iron is an essential mineral.
This is the main component of red blood cells, where it binds to hemoglobin and transports oxygen to cells.
There are two types of iron in food:
- Heme iron: This type of iron is very well absorbed. It is found only in animal food, and Red meat Contains a large amount.
- Non-heme iron: This type of iron is more common, and is found in both animal and plant foods. It does not absorb easily like heme iron.
Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world, affecting more than 25% of people worldwide .
This number increased to 47% in preschool-aged children. They are often iron deficient, unless given iron-rich foods or iron supplements.
30% of menstruating women may also be deficient in monthly blood loss. Up to 42% of young women, pregnant women may also suffer from iron deficiency.
In addition, vegetarians and vegans are also at risk. They only consume non-heme iron, which is not as well absorbed as heme iron (3, ).
The most common consequence of iron deficiency is anemia. Red blood cell count decreases, and blood reduces the ability to transport oxygen throughout the body.
Symptoms often include fatigue, weakness, weakened immune systems and impaired brain function .
The best sources of heme iron include:
- Red meat: 3 ounces (85 g) beef grind provides nearly 30% RDI .
- Visceral meat: A piece of liver (81 g) provides over 50% of the RDI.
- Shellfish, such as oysters, clams and oysters: 3 ounces (85 g) of cooked oysters provide about 50% of the RDI.
- Canned sardines: Each 3.75 ounce (106 g) provides 34% RDI.
The best sources of non-heme iron include:
- Bean: Half a cup kidney beans Cooked (3 ounces or 85 g) provides 33% RDI.
- Nuts, like pumpkin seeds , sesame and pumpkin seeds: One ounce (28 g) of roasted pumpkin seeds and pumpkin seeds provide 11% of RDI.
- Broccoli , Kale and spinach: One ounce (28 g) of fresh kale provides 5.5% of RDI.
However, you should not supplement iron unless you really need it. Too much iron can be very dangerous.
In addition, vitamin C may increase iron absorption. Eat foods rich in vitamin C like oranges , kale, bell peppers and iron-rich foods can help maximize iron absorption.
Summary: Iron deficiency is very common, especially in young women, children and vegetarians. It can cause anemia, fatigue, weakness, weakened immune system and impaired brain function.
2. Iodine deficiency
Iodine is an essential mineral for thyroid function and thyroid hormone production .
Thyroid hormones are involved in many processes in the body, such as growth, brain development and bone protection. They also regulate metabolic rate.
Iodine deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. It affects nearly one-third of the world's population .
The most common symptom of iodine deficiency is the enlarged thyroid gland, also called . It can also increase heart rate, shortness of breath and weight gain .
Severe iodine deficiency can also cause serious side effects, especially in children. These include mental retardation and abnormal intellectual development .
There are some good sources of iodine:
- Seaweed: Only 1 g contains 460-1000% RDI.
- Fish: 3 ounces (85 g) of grilled cod provides 66% of RDI.
- Milk Products: A glass yogurt Simply provide about 50% of the RDI.
- Egg: A fruit egg Large supply of 16% RDI.
However, remember that this amount can vary greatly. Iodine is found mainly in soil and seawater, so if the soil is poor in iodine, the food grown in it will also contain less iodine.
Some countries have dealt with iodine deficiency by adding it salt , reduce this serious problem successfully .
Summary: Iodine is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies in the world. It can cause enlargement of the thyroid gland. Severe iodine deficiencies can slow intellectual and intellectual development and develop abnormalities in children.
3. Lack of vitamin D
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that acts like a steroid hormone in the body.
It travels throughout the blood and into cells, controlling the mechanism of gene opening and closing.
Most cells in the body have vitamin D. receptors.
Vitamin D is taken out of cholesterol in the skin when exposed to sunlight. Therefore, people who live far away from the equator are likely to be deprived because they are less exposed to the sun .
In the United States, about 42% of people may be deficient in vitamin D. This number increases to 74% in the elderly and 82% in the black, because their skin produces less vitamin D in response to sunlight. .
Vitamin D deficiency is often not visible. The symptoms are difficult to see and can develop over the years or decades .
Adults with vitamin D deficiency may experience muscle weakness, bone loss and an increased risk of bone fractures. In children, it can cause growth retardation and soft bone (rickets) ( 20, ).
In addition, vitamin D deficiency may play a role in reducing immune function and increasing the risk of cancer .
Unfortunately, very few foods contain significant amounts of this vitamin.
The best sources of vitamin D are :
- Cod liver oil: One tablespoon contains 227% of RDI.
- Fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, sardines or salmon: A part salmon Small, 3 ounces (85g) cooked contains 75% of RDI.
- Egg yolk: A large egg bank contains 7% RDI.
People who really lack vitamin D may need to take supplements or sunbath. Very hard to have enough quantity just through diet.
Summary: Vitamin D deficiency is very common. Symptoms include muscle weakness, bone loss, increased risk of fractures and soft bones in children. It is difficult to get enough just through diet.
4. Lack of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin.
It is necessary for blood formation, as well as for brain and nerve function.
Each cell in the body needs B12 to function normally, but the body cannot produce it. So we have to take it from food or functional foods.
Vitamin B12 is found only in animal foods (except nori seaweed and soy sauce). Therefore, people who do not eat animal products are at risk of deficiency.
Studies show that vegetarians and vegans are more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12, up to 80-90% (24, ).
More than 20% of elderly people may also be deficient in vitamin B12 because absorption decreases with age .
Absorption of vitamin B12 is more complex than other vitamins, because it needs a support protein known as
Some people lack this protein, and therefore may need to inject B12 or take supplements in large doses.
A common symptom of vitamin B12 deficiency is It is a blood disorder that increases the size of red blood cells.
Other symptoms include impaired brain function and concentration increased, this is a risk factor for some diseases .
Food sources that contain vitamin B12 include:
- Shellfish, especially oysters and oysters: A 3-ounce (85 g) cooked scallop provides 1400% RDI.
- Visceral meat: A 2 ounce (60 gram) piece of liver provides over 1000% of RDI.
- Meat: A small 6-ounce steak (170 grams) provides 150% of the RDI.
- Egg: Each egg provides about 6% of RDI.
- Dairy products: A cup of whole milk provides about 18% of RDI.
Many B12 are not considered harmful, because they are often poorly absorbed and excess is excreted in the urine.
Summary: Vitamin B12 deficiency is very common, especially for vegetarians and the elderly. The most common symptoms include blood disorders, impaired brain function and increased homocysteine.
5. Lack of calcium
Calcium is essential for cells. It causes mineralization of bones and teeth, especially during rapid growth. It is also important for bone maintenance.
In addition, calcium acts as a signaling molecule throughout the body. Without it, our hearts, muscles and nerves will not work.
Blood levels of calcium are tightly regulated, and any excess is stored in the bone. If calcium is lacking in the diet, calcium is released from the bone.
That's why the most common symptom of calcium deficiency is expression in bones is softer and brittle.
A survey found that in the United States, less than 15% of girls and less than 10% of women over the age of 50 obtained the recommended calcium intake .
In the same survey, under 22% of adolescents, young men and men over 50 years of age met the recommended calcium intake by diet alone. The use of functional foods has increased this number but most people still do not have enough calcium.
More severe symptoms of calcium deficiency include soft bones (rickets) in children and osteoporosis, especially in the elderly .
Calcium sources include:
- Whole bone fish: A box of sardines contains 44% of RDI.
- Dairy products: One cup milk contains 35% RDI.
- Dark green vegetables, such as kale, spinach, cabbage and broccoli: One ounce (28.3 grams) of fresh kale provides 5.6% of RDI.
The effectiveness and safety of calcium supplements has been controversial in recent years.
Some studies have found an increased risk of heart disease in people taking calcium supplements, although other studies have found no effect .
Even if it is best to take calcium from food instead of functional foods, calcium supplements still seem to benefit people who are not absorbed enough through diet .
Summary: Low calcium absorption is common, especially in women and the elderly. The main symptom of calcium deficiency is an increased risk of osteoporosis in old age.
6. Lack of vitamin A
Vitamin A is an essential vitamin that can dissolve. It helps to form and maintain healthy skin, teeth, bones and cell membranes.
Moreover, it also creates eye pigment, which is essential for vision .
There are two types of vitamin A according to different diets:
- Vitamin A available: This vitamin A is found in animal products such as red meat, fish, poultry and milk .
- Vitamin A precursors: This vitamin A is found in plant foods such as fruits and vegetables. Beta-carotene, the body substance that turns into vitamin A, is the most common form.
More than 75% of people on Western diets are receiving more vitamin A and need not worry about deficiency .
However, lack of vitamin A very popular in many developing countries. About 44-50% of preschool children in some regions are deficient in vitamin A. This number is about 30% in Indian women .
Vitamin A deficiency can cause temporary and permanent eye damage and may even lead to blindness. In fact, vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of blindness.
Vitamin A deficiency can also reduce immune function and increase mortality, especially in children and pregnant or lactating women .
Food sources of vitamin A are available including:
- Visceral meat: A beef liver slice (60 g) can provide more than 800% of RDI.
- Cod liver oil: One tablespoon contains about 500% of RDI.
Food sources containing beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A) include:
- Sweet potato: One bulb sweet potato Boiled on average about 6 ounces (170 g) contains 150% of RDI.
- Carrot: One bulb carrot Large offers 75% RDI.
- Dark green vegetables: One ounce (28 g) of fresh spinach provides 18% of RDI.
Although consuming enough vitamin A is important, it is generally not advisable to consume too much available vitamin A because it can cause poisoning.
This does not apply to vitamin A precursors, such as beta-carotene. Drinking too much can make the skin slightly orange, but it is not dangerous.
Summary: Vitamin A deficiency is very common in many developing countries. It can cause eye damage and lead to blindness, as well as reduce immune function and increase mortality in women and children.
7. Lack of magnesium
Magnesium is an important mineral in the body.
It is necessary for bone and tooth structure, and is also involved in more than 300 enzyme reactions .
Nearly half of the US population (48%) consumes less than the amount of magnesium needed during 2005-2006 .
Low consumption and low levels of magnesium in the blood are associated with a number of conditions such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease and osteoporosis .
Low magnesium levels are particularly common in hospitalized patients. Some studies show that 9-65% of them are deficient in magnesium .
This may be due to illness, drug use, impaired digestive function or insufficient magnesium consumption .
The main symptoms of severe magnesium deficiency include abnormal heart rhythms, cramps, restless syndrome, fatigue and migraine
Chronic chronic symptoms that you don't notice include insulin resistance and high blood pressure.
The supply of food magnesium includes:
- Cereals bran: One cup Oat (6 ounces or 170 g) contains 74% of RDI.
- Nuts: 20 almonds provide 17% of RDI.
- Black chocolate : 1 ounce (30 g) of dark chocolate (70-85%) provides 15% of RDI.
- Leafy green vegetables: 30 g of fresh spinach provides 6% of RDI.
Summary: Many people eat very little magnesium, and this deficiency is common in Western countries. Low magnesium consumption is associated with many medical conditions and illnesses.
A lack of certain nutrients is possible, but these 7 types are the most common.
Children, young women, the elderly and vegetarians seem to be at risk of missing some of the highest substances.
The best way to prevent deficiencies is to eat a balanced diet based on real foods Nutritious food (both plants and animals).
However, dietary supplements may be necessary when it is not possible to get enough just by eating.