Today, carb is a controversial topic.
According to the eating guidelines, half of the calories we absorb are derived from carbohydrates.
On the other hand, some people think that carb is the cause of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and most people should avoid it.
Both sides have reasonable arguments, and it seems that the demand for carbohydrates largely depends on each individual.
Some people can still work well with less carb intake, while others only feel good when eating lots of carb.
This article offers a specific view of carb, their effects on their health and how you can make the right choice.
What is carb?
Carb, or carbohydrate, are molecules with carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms.
In nutrition, "carb" refers to one of three types main. The other two types are the protein and fat.
Carbohydrates can be divided into three main categories:
- Street: Short, sweet chain carbohydrates are found in foods. For example, glucose, fructose , galactose and sucrose.
- Starch: Long chains of glucose molecules, which will eventually divide into glucose molecules in the digestive system.
- Fiber: People cannot digest fiber, though bacteria Some types of fiber can be used in the digestive system.
The main purpose of dietary carbohydrates is to provide energy. Most carbides decompose or metabolize into glucose, which can be used as energy. Carb can also be converted into fat (stored energy) for later use.
Fiber is an exception. It does not provide direct energy, but it nourishes the bacteria in the digestive system. These bacteria can use fiber to produce fatty acids that some of our cells use to make energy.
Sugar alcohol derivatives are also classified as carbohydrates. They taste sweet, but often do not provide much calories.
Summary: Carbohydrates are one of the three main nutrients. The main types of carbohydrates are sugar, starch and fiber.
"Pure" carb and "refined" carb
Not all carb are the same.
There are many types of foods that contain carbohydrates and they cause different health effects.
Although carb is usually classified according to the "simple" and "complex" criteria, I personally find that the classification according to "pure" and "refined" criteria is more correct.
Pure carb are unprocessed carbons and contain natural fiber in food, while refined carbons have been processed and removed natural fibers.
Examples of pure carb include vegetables, fruits, beans, potatoes and whole grains. These foods are generally healthy.
On the other hand, refined carb includes sugary drinks, juices, pastries, white bread, white pasta, white rice and other things.
Many studies show that consumption of refined carbohydrates is linked to health problems such as obesity and type 2 diabetes .
They tend to cause blood sugar to rise suddenly, then decrease, which can make you hungry and craving a lot of high-carb foods .
This is the "blood sugar glider" familiar to many people.
Foods containing refined carbohydrates also often lack essential nutrients. In other words, they are "empty" calories.
Sugar additive is another story, they are the worst carbohydrates and involve all kinds of chronic diseases .
However, not so that we equate all carbohydrate foods is bad just because of the health effects of a carbohydrate division.
Food sources of carbohydrates contain many nutrients and fiber, and do not cause a sudden drop in blood sugar.
Hundreds of studies on fiber-rich carbohydrates, including vegetables, fruits, beans and whole grains, suggest that eating them helps promote metabolic health and reduce the risk of disease .
Summary: Not all carb are created the same. Types of refined carbohydrates can cause obesity and metabolic diseases, but pure carbohydrate foods are good for health.
Low-carb diets benefit some people
No discussion about carb ends without mentioning Low-carb diet .
This type of diet restricts carbohydrate intake, and allows for the absorption of many proteins and fats.
More than 23 studies have shown that the Low-carb diet is much more effective than the standard "low-fat" (low-fat) diet that has been proposed over the past few decades.
These studies show that low-carb diets will do Lose more weight and improved health indicators, including HDL cholesterol, blood triglycerides, blood sugar, blood pressure and others .
For people who are obese, or suffer from metabolic syndrome and / or type 2 diabetes, a low-carb diet can bring many benefits to their lives.
This should not be taken lightly, as these are the biggest health problems on the world , causing the deaths of millions of people every year.
However, not a low-carb diet that is useful for weight loss and for people with certain metabolic problems, it will definitely solve the problem for everyone.
Summary: More than 23 studies have shown that a low-carbohydrate diet is very effective for weight loss and helps improve metabolic health.
"Carb" is not the cause of obesity
Restricting carb may (at least partly) reduce obesity.
However, this does not mean carb is the first cause of obesity.
This is really a mystery, and there is a lot of evidence against it.
Although sugar additives and refined carbohydrates are associated with an increase in obesity, it is also not true for pure, high-fiber carbohydrate foods.
Humans have eaten carb for thousands of years in this form or another form. The obesity epidemic began around 1980, and type 2 diabetes occurred shortly thereafter.
Blaming a new health problem that has emerged for what we have eaten for thousands of years is completely meaningless.
Remember that many people still have great health while eating a high-carb diet, such as the Okinawan people, Kitavan and Asian rice eaters.
Their common point is that they ate unrefined food.
However, people eat a lot of carbohydrates refined and processed foods tend to be sick and unhealthy.
Summary: Humans have been eating carb for a long time before obesity epidemics emerged, and there are many examples of population populations still maintaining great health while eating a high-carb diet.
Carb is not "essential," but many foods contain really good carb for health
Many low-carb eaters claim that carb is not an essential nutrient.
This is technically correct. The body can function without any carbohydrates in the diet.
There is a mystery that the brain needs 130 grams of carbohydrate per day.
When we don't eat carb, part of the brain can use ketones to make energy. Ketones are made from fat .
In addition, the body can produce a little glucose that the brain needs through a process called .
However, just because carb is not "necessary" does not mean they are not beneficial.
Many foods contain very nutritious and healthy foods, such as vegetables. These foods have all kinds of beneficial compounds and offer a wide range of health benefits.
Although you can still live even when eating a zero-carb diet, it may not be the optimal choice because you have missed plant foods that science has proven to be beneficial. .
Summary: Carbohydrates are not "essential" nutrients. However, many rich carb foods contain beneficial nutrients, so avoiding using them is a bad idea.
How to choose right
As a general rule, carbohydrates in natural, high-fiber form are healthy, while carbohydrates that are removed from fiber are not.
If it is pure food, then it will be healthy food for most people, regardless of the type of carbohydrate it contains.
If you keep this thought in mind, you can classify most of the carb as "good" or "bad" - but remember that these are general guidelines only.
In nutrition, we rarely see a clear boundary between good and bad.
- Vegetables: all kinds of vegetables. It is best to eat a variety of vegetables every day.
- Whole fruit: apple, banana , strawberry, etc.
- Pea's tree: lentils, red beans, peas, etc.
- Nuts: almond , walnuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, etc.
- Seed: chia seeds , pumpkin seeds.
- Whole grains: Choose whole grains, like Oat pure, quinoa seeds , brown rice, etc.
- Tubers: potatoes, sweet potatoes, etc.
People who are trying to limit carbohydrates need to use whole grains, beans, tubers and fruits with high sugar content.
- Sugar drinks: Coca cola, Pepsi, drinks containing vitamins, etc. Sugar drinks are the most unhealthy things you can put into your body.
- Fruit juice: Unfortunately, juice may have metabolic effects similar to sugary drinks.
- White bread: These are refined carbohydrates that are bad for metabolic health and have low levels of essential nutrients. This is true for most commercially available sandwiches.
- Sweet bread, cookies and pastries: They often have very high levels of refined sugar and flour.
- Cream: Most creams have high sugar content, although there are exceptions.
- Candy and chocolate: If you plan to eat chocolate, choose black chocolate have quality.
- French fries and potato slices: Fresh potatoes are healthy, but chips and potato slices are not.
Some people eat these foods regularly, but many people limit this food as much as possible.
Summary: Carb in pure, fiber-rich carbohydrates are generally healthy. Sugar-processed and refined carb foods are extremely unhealthy.
Some people feel that low-carb is great, but others need lots of carb to work well
No nutritional solution is suitable for everyone.
The "optimal" amount of carbohydrate depends on many factors, such as age, gender, metabolic health, physical activity, eating culture and personal preferences.
If you need to lose weight, or have health problems such as metabolic syndrome and / or type 2 diabetes, you are quite susceptible to carbohydrates.
In this case, reducing the amount of carbohydrate can give you clear benefits that can save lives.
On the other hand, if you're just a healthy person trying to stay healthy, there's probably no reason to avoid "carb" - just stick with pure food as much as possible.
If you are naturally toned and / or have a high level of physical activity, you can even work better with a high-carb diet.
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