Peppers are the fruit of chili Capsicum , known for its hot spicy flavor.

This kind of fruit belongs to the nightshade family along with bell peppers and tomato and most of the plant species have scientific names Capsicum annuum .

Chili has many different types such as cayenne and jalapenos.

This fruit is mainly used as a spice, or in small ingredients in dishes, different spices and sauces.

Chili is usually cooked, dried or ground into chili powder.

Capsaicin is the main bio-botanical compound found in chili and is the substance that makes peppers have a unique spicy flavor as well as bring many health benefits.

This is a picture of a chilli:

Peppers: The Value Of Nutrition And Health Impact

They come in many different colors, the most common being green (when unripe) and red.

Nutritional value

Fresh peppers contain mainly water (88%) and carbohydrates (9%).

The table below is information about the main nutrients in chili .


Fresh red peppers


100 gram

General information

Calories 40
Country 88%
The protein 1.9 g
Carb 8.8 g
Street 5.3 g
Fiber 1.5 g
Fat 0.4 g
Saturation 0.04 g
Unsaturated single 0.02 g
Polyunsaturated 0.24 g
Omega-3 0.01 g
Omega-6 0.23 g
Trans fat ~

Vitamins and minerals

Amount % DV
Vitamin A 48 µg 5%
Vitamin C 143.7 mg 160%
Vitamin D 0 µg ~
Vitamin E 0.69 mg 5%
Vitamin K 14 µg twelfth%
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) 0.07 mg 6%
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 0.09 mg 7%
Vitamin B3 (Niacin) 1.24 mg 8%
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) 0.2 mg 4%
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) 0.51 mg 39%
Vitamin B12 0 µg ~
Folate 23 µg 6%
Choline 10.9 mg 2%
Amount % DV
Calcium 14 mg first%
Iron 1.03 mg 13%
Magie 23 mg 6%
Phosphorus 43 mg 6%
Kali 322 mg 7%
Sodium 9 mg first%
Zinc 0.26 mg 2%
Copper 0.13 mg 14%
Manganese 0.19 mg 8%
Selenium 0.5 µg first%

Vitamins and minerals

Peppers are foods rich in vitamins and minerals.

However, because we often eat very little chili, the nutritional content of chili only accounts for a very small part of the total daily food.

  • Vitamin C: Peppers have very high levels of vitamin C. This is a powerful antioxidant, very important in healing wounds and immune function.
  • Vitamin B6: A B-type vitamin - contains some essential substances in energy metabolism.
  • Vitamin K1: Also known as phylloquinone, essential vitamins help blood clot as well as healthy bones and kidneys.
  • Potassium: Minerals are essential for the body, participating in many different activities. Absorbing enough potassium can reduce the risk of heart disease .
  • Copper: This is a substance that is often overlooked in Western diets, copper is an essential antioxidant, important for healthy bones and nerve cells.
  • Vitamin A: Red peppers have high levels of beta-carotene. This is the substance that will be converted into vitamin A in the body.

Conclude: Peppers contain many different vitamins and minerals, but they are usually eaten in small amounts so chili does not contribute significantly to the daily micronutrient intake.

Plant compounds

Peppers: The Value Of Nutrition And Health Impact
Red ripe peppers contain more antioxidant compounds than green peppers

Chili is a rich source Spicy and hot.

They are also rich in carotenoid antioxidants that bring many health benefits.

These are the main biological plant compounds in chili:

  • Capsanthin: a main carotenoid in red peppers, makes chili red, and often accounts for up to 50% of the total carotenoid. Its powerful antioxidant properties can fight cancer .
  • Violaxanthin: Carotenoid antioxidants mainly in yellow peppers, accounting for 37-68% of total carotenoid .
  • Lutein: There are many in green chili (unripe), the level of lutein will decrease as the chili ripens. Consuming lots of lutein will be good for the eyes .
  • Capsaicin: One of the most potent plant compounds in chili is studied. This is a substance that creates a spicy flavor and has a lot of health effects.
  • Sinapic acid: Healthy antioxidant, also known as sinapinic acid .
  • Ferulic acid: Similar to sinapic acid, this is an antioxidant that can fight many different chronic diseases .

The oxidation content of ripe chili (red) is much higher than that of unripe (green) peppers .

Conclude: There are many antioxidant compounds in chili that are associated with many different health benefits. The most notable is capsaicin, which makes peppers spicy.

Chili health benefits

Despite the hot spicy flavor, chili has long been considered a good spice for health.

Peppers: The Value Of Nutrition And Health Impact
Peppers help relieve pain and lose weight

Pain relief

Capsaicin, a biological plant compound that accounts for a large amount of chili, has some very unique properties.

This substance will bind to pain receptors - the nerve endings that sense pain, then create a burning sensation, but don't really cause any injuries.

However, eating a lot of chili (or capsaicin) can gradually damage the pain receptors, causing loss of sensation with the hot taste of chili.

It also makes these receptors unable to sense other forms of pain, such as heartburn due to acid reflux.

One study gave patients heartburn (indigestion) 2.5 grams of red chili daily for 5 weeks of treatment, resulting in severe pain in the beginning, but pain was improved. gradually improve over time .

A similar small study also showed that 3 grams of chili daily for 6 weeks could improve heartburn in patients with acid reflux .

The effect of loss of sensation does not seem to last long, and one study has shown that this effect will cease after 1-3 days of cessation of capsaicin .

Weight loss

Obesity is a serious health condition that increases the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and diabetes.

There is some evidence that capsaicin, a plant compound in chili, can promote weight loss by reducing appetite and enhancing fat burning .

In fact, studies have shown that eating 10 grams of red chili can increase significant fat burning in both men and women .

Recent similar studies have also demonstrated that capsaicin can significantly increase fat burning .

Capsaicin may also reduce calories. A study of 24 people who ate peppers regularly found that taking capsaicin before meals could lead to low consumption. calories more .

Another study showed a significant reduction in appetite and food intake in people who did not regularly eat chili .

Not all studies show that chili is effective. Other chili studies also did not show significant effects on calorie intake and the amount of fat burned .

Although there is evidence of efficacy, it seems that frequent consumption of red peppers or capsaicin supplements only results in weight loss when combined with a healthy lifestyle (14).

However, chili and capsaicin will not be very effective if used alone; The effect of capsaicin takes a while to see clearly, which makes it not very useful (15).

Conclude: Peppers can bring some health benefits. This food can help with weight loss when combined with a healthy lifestyle, as well as help reduce the pain of acid reflux.

Side effects and isolated cases

Peppers: The Value Of Nutrition And Health Impact
Peppers cause a burning sensation and can lead to stomach pain and diarrhea in some people

Like most foods, chili can cause side effects in some people, plus many people don't like the hot spicy flavor of chili.

Hot spicy feeling

Chili is still known for its hot spicy flavor.

Capsaicin is the substance that makes this taste. This substance can bind to pain receptors and cause burning sensation.

For this reason, chili extract is called oleoresin capsicum used as the main component of tear gas .

In large amounts, it can cause pain, inflammation, swelling and redness .

Regular contact with capsaicin for a long time can cause some pain neurons to lose their sensation and become insensitive to future pain.

Stomach pain and diarrhea

Eating chili can cause stomach pain in some people.

Symptoms may include abdominal pain, burning in the intestine, lower abdominal pain, and painful diarrhea.

This condition is very common in people with irritable bowel syndrome. Peppers can exacerbate symptoms in a short time in people who do not regularly eat chili .

For this reason, people with irritable bowel syndrome should limit the consumption of chili and other spicy foods.

Cancer risk

Cancer is a serious disease with symptoms that are abnormal growth of cells.

The evidence of chili effects on cancer is inconsistent.

In vitro experiments and animal studies show that capsaicin, a plant compound in chili, can increase or reduce cancer risk .

Observational studies in humans suggest that eating chili may lead to an increased risk of cancer, especially in the gallbladder and stomach .

In addition, eating red chili powder has been found to be a risk factor for oral and throat cancer in India (35).

Remember that observational studies cannot confirm whether chili causes cancer. The only thing from that is that people who eat peppers are more likely to get sick.

We need to do more research to determine if eating a lot of chili or supplementing capsaicin for a long time is safe.

Conclude: Chili is not a good food for everyone. They cause a burning sensation and can lead to stomach pain and diarrhea in some people. Some studies have shown that eating chili is linked to cancer.

In brief

Peppers are a popular spice around the world and are known for their characteristic pungent taste.

This type of food is rich in vitamins, minerals and other unique plant compounds.

Including capsaicin, which causes burning sensation in the mouth. Capsaicin not only brings some health benefits, but also causes side effects.

On the one hand, if eaten regularly, this substance can help promote weight loss and pain relief.

On the other hand, it causes a burning sensation, Makes many people uncomfortable, especially those who are not used to chili.

Chili may also cause indigestion, and some studies have shown each link between chili consumption and cancer, although the evidence for this conclusion is very small.

But anyway, for many people spicy chili is still a good food for health, and those who have difficulties in digestion is better to avoid eating.