Potatoes are tubers that grow underground from the roots of a tree with a scientific name Solanum tuberosum . This is the nightshade family with the tomato and tobacco plants.
Originating from South America, potatoes were brought to Europe in the 16th century and there are countless varieties of potatoes being grown worldwide.
Potatoes are usually prepared by boiling, baking or frying. They are prepared in many different ways, but are often used as side dishes or snacks.
Popular potato food products include potato chips and potato flour.
Baked potatoes without peeling are a good source of vitamins and minerals, such as potassium and vitamin C.
Here's a picture of a potato:
Potatoes are usually brown, but they also have many other colors such as yellow, red and purple.
Besides high water content (80%) when fresh, potatoes contain mostly carb, and a good amount of protein, fiber, and almost no fat.
The table below is information about all the main nutrients in potatoes .
Type: Peeled boiled potatoes
Servings: 100 grams
|The protein||1.9 g|
|Unsaturated single||0 g|
|Vitamin A||0 µg||~|
|Vitamin C||13 mg||14%|
|Vitamin D||0 µg||~|
|Vitamin E||0.01 mg||0%|
|Vitamin K||2.1 µg||2%|
|Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)||0.11 mg||9%|
|Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)||0.02 mg||2%|
|Vitamin B3 (Niacin)||1.44 mg||9%|
|Vitamin B5 (Acid panthothenic)||0.52 mg||ten%|
|Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)||0.3 mg||23%|
|Vitamin B12||0 µg||~|
Potatoes contain mainly carb .
Almost in the form of starch, carb accounts for 66 to 90% of dry weight .
Simple sugars like sucrose, glucose and fructose also take up a small amount .
Potatoes often have a high blood sugar index, so these tubers are not suitable for people with diabetes. is an indicator of how much food affects the increase in blood sugar after a meal.
However, some types of potatoes may have an average index, depending on the variety and method of cooking .
Cooling potatoes after cooking can reduce the effects on blood sugar, and lower the blood sugar index by 25-26% .
Conclude: Carb is the main ingredient of potatoes. Depending on the variety, potatoes may dramatically increase blood sugar levels. People with diabetes should limit this type of food.
Although potatoes are not high in fiber, this can be an important source of fiber for people who eat potatoes regularly.
Potato peel contains very high fiber content, accounting for 1-2% of potatoes. In fact, 50% of dried potato peels are fiber .
Potato fiber is mainly insoluble like pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose .
This type of tuber may also contain some types starch resistant pepper , a fiber that nourishes the bacteria in the colon and helps improve digestive health .
Resistant pepper starch can also improve blood sugar control, causing blood sugar to decrease after eating potatoes .
Compared to hot cooked potatoes, potatoes are cooled after cooking with higher levels of resistant pepper .
Conclude: Potatoes are not high-fiber foods. However, potatoes that are cooled after boiling can contain some resistant pepper, a fiber that can improve intestinal health.
Protein in potatoes
Potatoes have amount the protein low, accounting for 1-1.5% of fresh weight and 8-9% of dry weight .
In fact, compared to other common food crops like wheat, rice, corn , potatoes have the lowest protein content.
Despite this, the protein in potatoes is of very high quality compared to other plants, higher than soybeans and other legumes .
The main protein in potatoes is called patatin, which can cause allergies to some people .
Conclude: Potatoes contain a small amount of high quality protein, which can cause allergies to some people.
Vitamins and minerals
Potatoes are a good source of vitamins and minerals, especially potassium and vitamin C.
Although the content of some vitamins and minerals is reduced when cooking, this may be limited by leaving the bark on when baking or boiling.
- Potassium: Minerals make up the most content in potatoes, concentrated in shells. Potassium may be beneficial for cardiovascular health .
- Vitamin C: is the main vitamin found in potatoes. Although the amount of vitamin C is significantly reduced during cooking, but cooking raw potatoes can reduce this loss .
- Folate: Concentrated in shells, the highest folate content is found in colored potatoes .
- Vitamin B6: A type of vitamin B is associated with red blood cell formation. Vitamin B6 is found in most foods and this deficiency is rare.
Conclude: Potatoes are a good source of vitamins and minerals like potassium, vitamin C, folate and vitamin B6.
Other plant compounds
Potatoes are rich mainly concentrated in shells.
Purple or red varieties of potatoes and shells contain the highest levels of antioxidants called polyphenols .
- Chlorogenic acid: This is the main polyphenol antioxidant in potatoes .
- Catechin: Antioxidants account for about 1/3 of the total polyphenol content. This substance has the highest concentration in purple potatoes ( 21 .
- Lutein: In yellow flesh potatoes, lutein is a very important carotenoid antioxidant for the eye (10, ).
- Glycoalkaloids: A toxic phytonutrient, mainly solanine and chaconine, is produced by potatoes to protect against insects and other threats. Large quantities of this substance can be harmful .
Conclude: Potatoes provide some healthy antioxidants that provide many health benefits. The antioxidants are concentrated in the skin.
Health benefits of potatoes
In a healthy diet, shell potatoes can have many health benefits.
High blood pressure, a symptomatic dangerous condition is abnormally high blood pressure, which is one of the major risk factors for heart disease.
Potatoes contain a number of minerals and plant compounds that can help lower blood pressure.
Potassium in potatoes is a particularly remarkable substance.
Several observational studies and randomized controlled trials have shown that high potassium intake may lead to a lower risk of high blood pressure and heart disease .
Other substances that can lower blood pressure include chlorogenic and kukoamine acids .
Conclude: Eating potatoes may help reduce the risk of heart disease.
Control comfort and weight
Satisfaction is a feeling of fullness and no appetite after eating.
Food that makes us fast can help control weight, prolong a feeling of fullness after meals as well as reduce food intake and energy intake .
Compared to other high carbohydrate foods, potatoes seem to make us feel fuller faster.
One study compared the satiety index of 40 common foods, indicating that potatoes had the highest index .
Another small test on 11 men showed eating with boiled potatoes with roasted pork made them eat less calories more in meals than pasta or white rice .
It is still unclear which ingredients in potatoes make this food work to fill.
However, studies have shown that a potato protein called proteolytic enzyme inhibitor 2 (PI2) can reduce appetite .
Although in pure PI2 form can inhibit appetite, but we still do not know with very small content in potatoes, this substance can create any effect.
Conclude: Potatoes can make you fast. For this reason, this type of food may be helpful in a weight loss diet.
Side effects and concerns for some people
In general, potatoes are thought to be safe and healthy.
However, there are some people who need to limit the consumption of potatoes, or abstain from eating completely.
Food allergy is a common condition when the immune system reacts negatively to proteins in certain foods.
Potato allergy is relatively rare, but some people may be allergic to patatin, one of the main proteins in potatoes .
Some people allergic to fruit plastic may also be sensitive to patatin, a phenomenon known as cross-allergic allergy .
Conclude: Potatoes can cause allergies to some people, but this situation is rare.
Glycoalkaloid, poison in potatoes
The nightshade family plants like potatoes contain a type of poison called glycoalkaloid.
In potatoes there are two main types of glycoalkaloids and chaconine.
The situation of glycoalkaloid poisoning after eating potatoes has occurred in both humans and animals .
However, poisoning cases are rare and in many cases it has not been detected as glycoalkaloid poisoning.
In low doses, glycoalkaloids often cause mild symptoms such as headache, stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting .
In more severe cases, symptoms include neurological disorders, shortness of breath, tachycardia, low blood pressure, fever and even death .
In mice, long-term absorption of glycoalkaloid may increase the risk of brain, lung, breast and thyroid cancers .
Other animal studies show that low levels of glycoalkaloid in human diet can worsen intestinal inflammation .
Normally potatoes only contain very small amounts of glycoalkaloid. A person weighing 70 kg must eat more than 2 kg of potatoes (with shell) in a new day that could be life-threatening .
However, eating less potatoes may also lead to adverse symptoms.
Glycoalkaloids are concentrated in the shell and sprouts the most compared to other parts of potatoes. So do not eat potato germs .
Potatoes that are rich in glycoalkaloid often have a bitter taste and cause a burning sensation in the mouth, which may be a warning sign of potential toxicity in potatoes .
Potato varieties with high glycoalkaloids (over 200 mg / kg) are not commercially available and some varieties have been banned .
Conclude: Depending on the variety, peel and potato germs may contain toxicity due to high levels of glycoalkaloid.
is a poison formed in carbohydrate-rich foods when they are cooked at very high temperatures, such as during frying and baking .
This substance is found in fries, baked, but not in fresh, boiled or steamed potatoes .
The amount of acrylamide increases when frying temperatures increase .
Compared to other foods, fries and chips contain a lot of acrylamide, making these foods a major source of acrylamide .
Acrylamide poisoning (the substance used as an industrial chemical) has been found in people exposed to this substance in their work environment .
Although the amount of acrylamide in foods is generally low, some experts worry about the effects of prolonged exposure to these chemicals.
Animal studies indicate that acrylamide may increase the risk of cancer in addition to neurotoxic effects .
In humans, acrylamide has been identified as a risk factor for cancer .
Many observational studies have investigated the effect of eating acrylamide-rich foods on human cancer risk.
Most of these studies did not detect any significant side effects .
In contrast, some studies have shown that acrylamide may increase the risk of breast cancer , ovary , kidney , mouth and esophagus .
Eating a lot of acrylamide may have adverse health effects over time, but the extent of these effects is unclear and more research is needed.
To get good health, you should limit your intake of fries and chips.
Conclude: French fries contain compounds called acrylamide, which can increase the risk of cancer. For this reason, you should limit eating chips.
French fries and chips are sliced
Potatoes are thought to cause obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
The main reason is because the dishes from fries and thin fries are widely consumed. These are high-fat foods and contain many unhealthy ingredients. French fries are also often eaten with fast food.
Observational studies have shown a link between eating fries and thin fries with weight gain .
These two foods may also contain acrylamide, glycoalkaloid and salt, which may be harmful to health if used over a long period of time .
That's why you should avoid fried foods from potatoes, especially fries and chips
Conclude: French fries contain some unhealthy ingredients. Do not eat a lot of these foods.
Potatoes are a popular carb-rich food consumed worldwide.
They are a good source of vitamins, minerals and healthy plant compounds that help with weight control. Potatoes may also help prevent heart disease.
The above effects do not apply to fried dishes from potatoes (fries and chips) that have been deep fried in oil under high temperature. For a good health, you should eat these foods or avoid them completely.