Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan diet offers many health benefits, and vegetarians may be lacking in nutrients

The vegan diet has gradually become very popular.

More and more people decide to be vegan with moral, environmental and health reasons.

When done properly, this diet will bring many health benefits, including a slim waist and increased control of blood sugar.

However, with a diet based on plant foods, in some cases may increase the risk of nutritional deficiencies.

This article will provide detailed instructions for those who are just beginning to be vegan. It aims to encapsulate everything you need to know to make a vegan diet properly.

What is a vegan diet?

Veganism is defined as a lifestyle to eliminate all forms of brutal exploitation for animals, whether food, clothing or any other purpose.

For this reason, a vegan diet avoids all animal products, including meat, eggs and milk.

People choose to eat vegan for many reasons.

Most often for ethical and environmental reasons, but may also stem from the desire to improve health.

Conclude: A vegan diet does not include all animal products. Many people choose to eat this way for ethical, environmental or health reasons.

Different vegan diets

There are many different vegan diets. The most common are:

  • Whole food vegan diet: is a diet based on a variety of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts and nuts.
  • Vegan diet raw food: is a diet based on unprocessed foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, nuts or plant foods cooked under 118 ° F (48 ° C) .
  • October 80, October 10: is a limited raw vegan diet in fat-rich plants such as nuts and avocados, instead relying primarily on fresh fruits and vegetables. Also known as a vegan low-fat vegan diet or a fruit-based diet.
  • Starch solution: is a low-fat, high-carb vegan diet, similar to 80/10/10 but focuses on cooked starch such as potatoes, rice and corn, instead of fruit.
  • Eat up to 4 hours: is a low-fat vegan diet inspired by the 80/10/10 regime and starch solution. Raw food is consumed until 4pm, and dinner is optional for cooked plant foods.
  • Vegan diet of garbage food: is a vegan diet lacking in whole plant foods, mainly based on fake meat and cheese, chips, vegan desserts and other processed foods.

Although the vegan diet has many variations, most scientific studies rarely distinguish them.

Therefore, the information provided in this article will cover the whole vegan diet.

Conclude: Although many different vegan diets can be applied, scientific research rarely distinguishes between them.

A vegan diet can help with weight loss

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan diet has a high intake of fiber, making it easier to feel full, thereby eating less to help lose weight

Vegan people tend to slim down and have a lower BMI than those who don't eat .

This explains why more and more people are turning to a vegan diet as a way to reduce excess weight.

Part of the weight loss benefit from vegan eating comes from other than diet. That includes healthier lifestyle choices, such as physical activity and other healthy habits.

However, some randomized controlled studies that control these external factors indicate that vegan diets are more effective at losing weight than other diets they have compared .

Interestingly, weight loss effects persist even when the whole food diet is used as a controlled diet.

They include diets recommended by the American Dietetic Association (ADA), American Heart Association (AHA) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) .

In addition, researchers often report that vegans often lose more weight than those who use a calorie-restricted diet, even if they are allowed to eat comfortably until they feel full .

The natural tendency of eating less calories In a vegan diet, the amount of fiber absorbed is higher, making it easier to feel full.

Conclude: A vegan diet is very effective in reducing natural calorie intake during meals, and leads to weight loss.

A vegan diet helps reduce blood sugar and type 2 diabetes

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan diet seems particularly effective to help improve the signs of blood sugar control

The application of a vegan diet helps control blood sugar and type 2 diabetes.

Some studies show that vegan people have more benefits from lowering blood sugar, insulin sensitivity and 78% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than non-vegan people .

In addition, a vegan diet is also reported to reduce blood sugar in diabetics by 2.4 times compared to the diets recommended by ADA, AHA and NCEP .

Part of this benefit is explained by the higher intake of fiber, which helps slow the blood sugar response. A vegan diet in addition to reducing weight and contributing to lower blood sugar .

Conclude: A vegan diet seems particularly effective to help improve the signs of blood sugar control. It also helps reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Vegan diet and cardiovascular benefits

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan diet helps keep the heart healthy.

Observational studies show that pure vegetarians can reduce their risk of high blood pressure by up to 75% and 42% risk of dying from heart disease .

Randomized controlled studies that are the gold standard in research also contribute to this evidence.

Some report that a vegan diet is much more effective in reducing blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol than other diets they have compared .

These effects are particularly beneficial because blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar lower the risk of heart disease by 46% .

Conclude: A vegan diet helps improve cardiovascular health. However, more high-quality research is needed before certain conclusions can be made.

Other health benefits of a vegan diet

A vegan diet is linked to many health benefits, including:

  • Cancer risk: A vegan diet reduces 15% of the risk of developing or dying from cancer .
  • Arthritis: vegan diet is especially effective in reducing arthritis symptoms such as joint pain, swelling and stiffness in the morning .
  • Renal function: People with diabetes replacing meat proteins with plant proteins may help reduce the risk of poor kidney failure .
  • Alzheimer: Observational studies show that many aspects of a pure vegetarian diet reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease .

Still, keep in mind that most studies that support these benefits are due to observation. This makes it difficult to determine whether the vegan diet directly affects these benefits.

Randomized controlled studies are needed before close conclusions are reached.

Conclude: A vegan diet affects many health benefits. However, more research is needed to determine this correlation relationship.

Foods to avoid

Vegetarians should not eat any animal-based foods, as well as foods that contain ingredients of origin . Include:

  • Meat and poultry: Beef, lamb, pork, veal, horse meat, viscera, wild meat, chicken, turkey, goose, duck, quail ...
  • Fish and seafood: All kinds of fish, anchovies, shrimp, squid, scallops, squid, mussels, crab, lobster ...
  • Milk Products: Fresh milk, yogurt, cheese, butter, fresh cream, cold cream ...
  • Egg: Chicken eggs, quail, ostrich, fish ...
  • Bee products: honey, pollen, jelly ...
  • Animal ingredients: whey, casein, lactose, albumin from egg whites, gelatin, color from aphids or lac color, shellac, L-cysteine, vitamin D3 from animals and fish omega 3 fatty acids.

Conclude: Vegan people avoid eating animal meat, animal by-products or food of animal origin.

Food should be eaten

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
Vegetarian burger

Health-conscious vegans should replace animal products with alternative plant products, such as:

  • Tofu, tempeh and noodles base: These are nutritious foods, replacing meat, fish, poultry and eggs in many recipes.
  • Pea's tree: Foods like nuts, lentils and peas are excellent sources of nutrition and contain many beneficial plant compounds. Proper germination, fermentation and processing can help increase the absorption of nutrients .
  • Nuts and butter nuts: especially non-roasted and unroasted nuts, this is a good source of iron, fiber, magnesium, zinc, selenium and vitamin E .
  • Nuts: especially hemp seeds, chia seeds and flax seeds, which contain a large amount of protein and useful omega-3 fatty acids .
  • Calcium supplemented milk from plants and yogurt: These foods help pure vegetarians to supplement the calcium they need. It also has different options to supplement vitamin B12 and D when possible.
  • Algae: Spirulina and Chlorella are the perfect source of protein. Other types are also rich in iodine.
  • Nutritional enamel: This is the easiest way to increase protein intake in a vegan meal as well as a delicious taste. Choose additional vitamin B12 supplements whenever possible.
  • Whole grains, cereal and fake cereals: This is a source of carb, fiber, iron, vitamin B and some other minerals. Spelled wheat, teff seeds, amaranth and matcha seeds are especially high in protein .
  • Food from germinated and fermented plants: Ezekiel bread, tempeh, miso, natto, sauerkraut, pickles, kimchi and kombucha tea often contain lots of probiotics and vitamin K2. Germination and fermentation also improve mineral absorption .
  • Fruits and vegetables: Both are very good sources of food, helping to increase the amount of nutrients. Green vegetables such as cabbage, spinach, kale, watercress and green mustard are especially high in iron and calcium.

Conclude: These minimal processed foods are a great source of supplement for pure vegetarians.

Risks and ways to minimize

Prioritize a reasonable, limited diet Processed foods And replacing them with nutritious food is very important not only for vegetarians but also for everyone.

However, those who adopt the pure vegetarian diet are at risk of lacking certain nutrients.

In fact, studies show that pure vegetarians have a higher risk of missing vitamin B12, vitamin D, long-chain omega-3s, iodine, iron, calcium and zinc in the blood ( ).

Not having enough of these nutrients is very worrying for everyone, especially for those in high demand, such as children or women who are pregnant or nursing.

Genetic characteristics and intestinal bacterial composition also affect the ability to metabolize essential nutrients in a vegan diet.

One way to minimize the potential for nutrient deficiencies is to limit the amount of processed vegan food and instead choose nutritious foods.

Nutritious foods, especially calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 should also be present in the daily meal.

Furthermore, for vegetarians who want to increase iron and zinc absorption, try fermentation, germination and food preparation methods .

Also, using iron pots and pans for cooking, avoiding tea or coffee during meals and combining iron-rich foods with sources of vitamin C can increase iron absorption .

Furthermore, supplementing with marine algae or salt iodine in the diet can help pure vegetarians achieve the recommended daily amount of iodine .

Finally, foods that contain omega-3, especially alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), help the body produce long-chain omega-3, such as (EPA) and (DHA).

ALA-rich foods include chia seeds, hemp seeds, flaxseed, walnuts and soybeans. However, many arguments have been raised as to whether these changes will meet daily needs .

Therefore, supplementation of 200-300 mg EPA and DHA from algae oil supplements would be safer to avoid too low levels of degradation .

Conclude: Vegan people are at risk of missing certain nutrients. A well-planned vegan diet includes nutritious foods and supplements that provide enough nutrients.

Consider using functional foods

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan diet may need dietary supplements to supplement nutrients that are lacking in the diet

Some vegans find it difficult to eat enough nutritious foods to meet the daily requirements.

In this case, the following functional foods will be particularly beneficial:

  • Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 in the most studied form of cyanocobalamin and works well for most people .
  • Vitamin D: choose vitamin D2 or vegan D3, produced by or .
  • EPA and DHA: Nutrient source from algae oil.
  • Iron: It should only be supplemented in case the deficiency has been indicated. Use too much iron From functional foods can cause health complications and prevent absorption of other nutrients .
  • Iodine: Take a supplement or add 1/2 teaspoon of iodized salt to your daily diet.
  • Calcium: Calcium is best absorbed when taking a dose of 500 mg or less each time. Using calcium at the same time as iron or zinc supplements can reduce their absorption .
  • Zinc: Use zinc gluconate or citrate form. Do not take it together with calcium supplements .

Conclude: People who are vegan who do not meet the recommended nutrient intake through food may consider taking supplements.

Vegan menu for one week

To help beginners, here is a simple plan for a vegan menu for one week:


  • Breakfast: with tofu, lettuce, tomato, turmeric and latte bottle tea from vegetable milk.
  • Lunch: fiber zucchini, quinoa salad with decorative beans.
  • Dinner: with rice from wild rice.


  • Breakfast: overnight oats with fruits, enriched vegetable milk, chia seeds and nuts.
  • Lunch: .
  • Dinner: pasta, and salad.


  • Breakfast: s Smoothie mango and spinach with enriched vegetable milk, banana muffin-flax-walnut.
  • Lunch: and tomato salad.
  • Dinner: Vegetarian peppers eat with spinach


  • Breakfast: Grilled cereal bread with hazelnut butter, banana and vegetable yogurt enriched.
  • Lunch: with vegetables.
  • Dinner: Sweet potatoes with lettuce, corn, beans, cashews, sour cream and butter cream sauce.


  • Breakfast: , cappuccino made from vegetable milk is enriched.
  • Lunch: Vegan taco cakes and mango-pineapple salsa sauce.
  • Dinner: Fried tempeh with chopped cabbage and broccoli.


  • Breakfast: spinach with fried tofu and a cup of vegetable milk enriched.
  • Lunch: , grilled whole wheat bread and hummus sauce.
  • Dinner: vegetarian sushi rolls, miso soup, soy edamame and wakame seaweed salad.


  • Breakfast: , butter cream sauce and salsa with a glass of orange juice enriched.
  • Lunch: fried green cabbage.
  • Dinner:

It is important to change the source of protein and vegetables throughout the day, as each provides different vitamins and minerals but is important for health.

Conclude: You can eat a variety of delicious foods from plants in a vegan diet.

Eat vegan at the restaurant

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
A vegan should prepare carefully before going out to eat

Outside vegan eating can be a challenge.

One way to relieve pressure is to pre-identify friendly vegan restaurants using websites like or . Applications like VeganXpress and Vegman may also be useful.

When dining in non-vegan places, try reading through the online menu to see what vegan options that place can provide.

Sometimes, call before going to the chef to prepare special dishes for vegan people. This allows you to go to the restaurant more confidently to order attractive dishes in addition to a salad.

When choosing any restaurant, be sure to ask about their vegan food as soon as they enter, ideally before sitting down.

When in doubt, choose ethnic restaurants. These restaurants tend to prepare natural, friendly or easily changed vegan dishes to meet your needs. Mexican, Thai, Middle Eastern, Ethiopian and Indian restaurants are great options.

When you arrive at the restaurant, try to identify vegan options on the menu and ask if eggs or milk can be used to make a vegan-friendly dish.

Another simple tip is to order some vegan appetizers or side dishes.

Conclusion: C Precise preparation helps net vegetarians reduce stress when dining outside.

Healthy vegan snacks are healthy

Snacks are a great way to keep energy and avoid hunger between meals.

Vegan Diet - A Beginner's Handbook
Vegan snacks are also very attractive and should choose foods high in fiber and protein

Some vegan options are easy to carry and very attractive, including:

  • Fresh fruit and a little nut butter.
  • Hummus sauce and vegetables
  • Nutritional yeast sprinkle on popcorn
  • Roasted chicken beans
  • Stick nuts and fruits
  • Mixed nuts and dried fruits
  • Split grain pudding
  • Home made muffin cake
  • Pita bread with salsa and butter cream sauce
  • Cereal cake with vegetable milk
  • Edamame soybeans
  • Whole grain biscuits and cashew butter
  • Coffee with vegetable milk or vegetable milk cappuccino
  • Snacks from dried seaweed

Whenever planning a vegan snack, try to choose foods high in fiber and protein, which help to reduce hunger between meals.

Conclude: These protein-rich and convenient vegetarian snacks are suitable to reduce hunger between meals.

frequently asked Questions

Here are some common questions about a vegan diet.

  1. Can I only eat raw food as a vegan type?

Absolutely not. Although some vegetarians choose to do so, raw vegan food is not for everyone. Many vegan people eat cooked food, and there is no scientific basis to assume that only raw food is eaten.

  1. Will switching to a pure vegetarian diet help me lose weight?

A pure vegetarian diet emphasizes nutritious plant foods and limits the consumption of processed foods, which can help with weight loss.

As mentioned in the above weight loss section, a vegan diet will help us eat less calories without having to limit our diet.

However, when combined with calories, a vegan diet is not more effective than other diets in weight loss .

  1. What is the best alternative milk?

There are many ways to replace vegetable milk from cow's milk. Soybeans and hemp seeds contain more protein, making them more beneficial for people trying to keep high protein levels.

Whichever milk you choose, always make sure it contains plenty of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12 if available.

  1. Vegan people tend to eat more soy. Is this harmful?

Soy bean is a great source of vegetable protein. They contain an array of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and beneficial plant compounds related to many different health benefits .

However, soy can reduce thyroid function in susceptible individuals, as well as cause farting and diarrhea in others .

It is best to choose the minimum processed food like tofu and edamame beans , as well as limiting the use of soy-based products.

Products from fermented soybeans like and Especially beneficial, because the fermentation process improves nutrient absorption .

  1. How to replace eggs in recipes?

Particles and Linseed is a great way to replace eggs in cooking. To replace an egg, just mix one tablespoon of split seeds or flax seeds with three tablespoons of hot water and let it rest until foaming.

Crushed bananas are also a great substitute for eggs in some cases.

is an alternative to eggs during a vegetarian meal. Tofu can also be used in a variety of egg-based recipes, such as omelette, frying and egg-making.

  1. How to make sure the body has enough protein?

Vegan people can ensure that they meet the daily protein requirements by giving protein-rich foods at meals.

See this article for a closer look at the best protein plant sources.

  1. How can I be sure that my body has enough calcium?

Types calcium-rich food including cabbage, kale, green mustard, turnip cabbage, watercress salad, broccoli, chickpeas and calcium-rich tofu.

Enriched vegetable milk and juice are also a great way to help vegetarians increase their calcium intake.

The amount of calcium RDA is 1,000 mg per day for most adults and increases to 1,200 mg per day for people over 50 .

Some people believe that a vegetarian diet has a lower requirement due to lack of meat during meals. Not much scientific evidence is found to support or deny this.

However, current studies have shown that vegetarians consume less than 525 mg of calcium per day at risk of fracture .

For this reason, a vegan should try to consume at least 525 mg of calcium per day.

  1. Should vitamin B12 be supplemented?

Vitamin B12 is often found in animal foods. However, some plant foods still contain this vitamin, but there is much debate about whether this form works in the human body .

Although many rumors spread, there is no scientific evidence to support products with reliable sources of vitamin B12.

Daily intake of vitamin B12 is 2.4 mcg for adults, 2.6 mcg per day during pregnancy and 2.8 mcg daily for breastfeeding .

Vitamin B12 enriched products and foods are the only two types of vitamin B12 reliable for vegans.

Unfortunately, many vegetarians do not seem to consume sufficient vitamin B12 to meet their daily requirements .

If daily requirements cannot be met through the use of vitamin B12 supplements, consider taking a vitamin B12 supplement.

Main message

Each individual can choose veganism for ethical, environmental or health reasons.

When done right, a vegan diet can be easily applied and can bring many health benefits.

Like any diet, these benefits will only appear when you are consistent and build a nutritious diet from plants rather than processed foods.

Net vegetarians, especially those who cannot meet their daily nutritional requirements through diet alone, should consider taking supplements.