All cells and organs in the human body need water to function normally.
Therefore, we need to continuously replenish water lost from the body through sweat, urine and breathing.
Not drinking enough water can cause symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness or cramps.
In contrast, drink too much water Can also cause a serious symptom called water poisoning.
What is Water Poisoning?
Water poisoning, also known as water poisoning, is a disruption of brain function due to drinking too much water .
Drinking too much water also increases the amount of water in the blood.
Water can dilute electrolytes in the blood, especially sodium. When sodium concentration falls below 135 mmol / L, there will be evidence (hyponatremia).
Sodium helps balance fluid inside and outside the cell.
When sodium levels decrease due to excessive water consumption, fluid cells move from outside to inside the cell causing them to swell .
If this happens to brain cells, it can be life-threatening.
Conclude: Water poisoning is the result of drinking too much water. Excess water dilutes the amount of sodium in the blood, causing fluid to move inside the cells, causing them to swell.
Drinking too much water can be dangerous
Water poisoning is the result of cell swelling.
Swollen brain cells increase the pressure inside the skull. This pressure causes the first symptoms of water poisoning, including:
Some severe cases can cause more severe symptoms, such as:
- Dual vision.
- Shortness of breath.
- Muscle weakness and cramps.
- Inability to sense sensory information.
Excess fluid in the brain is called can affect the brain stem and cause central nervous system dysfunction.
In severe cases, water poisoning can cause seizures, brain damage, coma and even death .
Conclude: Drinking too much water increases the pressure inside the skull. Causes many different symptoms and even fatalities in severe cases.
Water poisoning is fatal
Although accidents due to water poisoning are often very unlikely, there are still deaths due to this cause.
Many cases of water poisoning in military personnel have been reported .
A report of 17 soldiers with water poisoning was found in sodium deficiency in the blood. Their blood sodium levels range from 115 to 130 mmol / L, while the normal range is 135-145 mmol / L .
Another report on the deaths of three soldiers in hyponatremia and cerebral edema. These cases are the result of drinking 10-20 liters of water in just a few hours .
Symptoms of hyponatremia may be misinterpreted as dehydration symptoms. A soldier who was diagnosed with dehydration and heat shock died of water poisoning due to drinking too much water .
Water poisoning also occurs in sports, especially those that require stamina. Excess water is very common in these activities as a method to avoid dehydration.
Therefore, frequent hyponatremia occurs during major sporting events .
At the Boston Marathon in 2002, 13% of participants had symptoms of hyponatremia in the blood. 0.06% of cases are very severe, with sodium concentration below 120 mmol / L .
Unfortunately, there have been several cases of death due to water poisoning at these sporting events.
The case occurs with an athlete after running a marathon. The test showed that the person's sodium concentration was less than 130 mmol / L. He suffered (hydrocephalus) and brain hernia, leading to death later .
Drinking too much water also occurs in cases of mental patients, especially schizophrenia .
A study of 27 young schizophrenic patients died showed that 5 of them died by causing water poisoning themselves .
Conclude: Water poisoning occurs most commonly in military personnel, athletes in endurance sports and schizophrenia patients. Deaths due to hyponatremia are often reported in this group of people.
L How much water is too much?
Excess and water poisoning occurs when you drink more water than your kidneys can get out of your urine.
But amount of water Not the only factor. The duration of drinking water is also calculated.
You will be at high risk of water poisoning if you drink too much water in a short period of time. The risk will decrease if you also drink the same amount but for longer periods of time.
Symptoms of hyponatremia can occur if you consume 3-4 liters of water for a short period of time .
Your kidneys can emit about 20-28 liters of water a day, but it cannot discharge more than 0.8-1 liters of water per hour .
Therefore, to avoid symptoms of hyponatremia, you should not drink more than an average of 0.8-1.0 liters of water per hour .
There have been many reports of cases of water poisoning due to excessive drinking of water over a short period of time.
For example, a report describing soldiers showing symptoms of water poisoning after drinking 1.8 liters of water per hour .
Another report showed signs of hyponatremia when water consumption was about 10-20 liters in just a few hours .
The case of prolonged water intoxication and hyponatremia also occurred with a healthy 22-year-old male prisoner after he drank 6 liters of water in just 3 hours .
Finally, a 9-year-old girl drank about 3.6 liters of water for 1-2 hours showing signs of water poisoning .
Conclude: Kidneys are capable of emitting up to 28 liters of fluid per day. However, they cannot emit more than 1 liter per hour. Therefore, drinking more water than that is not a good idea.
L How much water is enough?
There are no specific figures for how much water you need to drink each day. It depends on each individual.
To determine the amount of water you need, consider your body weight, level of physical activity and climate.
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends that men drink 3.7 liters of water a day, while in women it is 2.7 liters.
However, these recommendations include water from food and beverages .
Some people still apply the 8 x 8 principle, which advises drinking eight glasses of 8 ounces of water a day. However, this principle is mostly self-created and not based on research .
The cái thumb ’principle is to listen to your body and drink when you feel thirsty. Doing so is enough to always maintain a good amount of water for the body.
However, this principle does not apply to some special cases. Athletes, older people and pregnant women will need to drink more water than usual.
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